The opioid epidemic in the United States has been greatly influenced by the rise of fentanyl in the drug supply. As a result, the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) with medications like buprenorphine and methadone has become increasingly complex. Despite years of data and experience with fentanyl, dosing guidelines for these medications have not been adequately re-evaluated to address the unique challenges posed by this potent synthetic opioid. This article delves into the need for tailored treatment and optimizing medication practices in the fentanyl era.
The established dosage guidelines for buprenorphine, which were based on studies with heroin and prescription opioid users, have not fully accounted for the impact of fentanyl on OUD. Many patients with a history of chronic fentanyl use report that the recommended daily dose of 16 mg does not adequately control their cravings and withdrawal symptoms. In fact, an increase to 24 mg often results in improved symptom management. This discrepancy between guideline recommendations and real-world patient experiences highlights the need for a re-evaluation of buprenorphine dosing practices.
A recent study published in JAMA Network Open sheds light on the association between buprenorphine maintenance dose and treatment retention. Using statewide data from Rhode Island spanning from 2016 to 2020, the study found that patients prescribed the recommended target daily dose of 16 mg were 20% more likely to discontinue treatment within 6 months compared to those prescribed a higher dose of 24 mg. These findings underscore the importance of tailoring buprenorphine dosing to individual patient needs, particularly for individuals with a history of fentanyl use.
Addressing the challenges of the fentanyl era extends beyond buprenorphine dosing. Methadone, another medication used in OUD treatment, also requires reevaluation. The current daily limits of methadone at the start of treatment often fall short in alleviating withdrawal symptoms for individuals using fentanyl. Some patients on high methadone doses continue to experience ongoing withdrawal, leading them to supplement with fentanyl to manage their symptoms. To improve patient outcomes, alternative options such as split dose methadone should be made more accessible.
Optimizing medication practices for OUD in the fentanyl era requires rigorous research and analysis of existing clinical data. In addition to buprenorphine and methadone dosing, the effectiveness of adjunctive medications for withdrawal and new medication initiation should be studied more comprehensively. Novel therapeutics hold promise, but in the interim, utilizing the available evidence-based tools is crucial to enhance patient outcomes and reduce the risks associated with fentanyl use.
In addition to medication optimization, addressing operational barriers is essential for providing effective care to individuals with OUD. State governments should demand operational efficiencies and evidence-based practices from healthcare providers, including office-based providers, opioid treatment programs, pharmacies, and hospital systems. Implementing simple measures, such as removing restrictions on filling buprenorphine prescriptions and improving coordination between providers, can greatly impact an individual’s recovery journey.
The growing for-profit substance use treatment industry must reflect critically on its ability to adapt to the changing landscape of OUD treatment. It is crucial to prioritize comprehensive and individualized care over financial gains. Collaboration among stakeholders is essential, as siloed perspectives and self-interests hinder progress in addressing the overdose crisis. Emphasizing operational excellence, evidence-based practice, and utilizing available data are key steps towards saving lives and improving outcomes for individuals with OUD.
As a society, we must move beyond simply acknowledging the devastation caused by fentanyl. Action must be taken to optimize the tools and resources currently available. Tailored dosing guidelines for medications like buprenorphine and methadone, based on an understanding of fentanyl’s potency and impact, are necessary. Further research is required to develop comprehensive solutions, and operational barriers must be effectively addressed. By doing so, we can create a more effective and compassionate healthcare system that better serves individuals with OUD and reduces the harm caused by fentanyl.