The landscape of HIV treatment is constantly evolving, with new options becoming available to both providers and patients. One such option that has garnered attention is long-acting injectable antiretroviral therapy (ART). While it offers a promising alternative to oral medications, the limitations and challenges surrounding its use cannot be ignored. In this article, we will delve into the topic of long-acting injectable ART, examining its potential benefits and drawbacks, as well as exploring possible avenues for further research and development.
Long-acting injectable ART presents a new realm of choice for individuals living with HIV. According to Dr. Samir Gupta of Indiana University, this option allows people to tailor their treatment plan based on their personal preferences. Some individuals may prefer injectables over oral pills due to concerns such as the inconvenience of carrying pill bottles, swallowing large pills, or increased pill burden. Additionally, the fear of stigmatization due to taking oral pills may also play a role in the preference for injectables. Overall, the power of choice is an essential factor when considering the adoption of long-acting injectable therapy.
While guidelines currently recommend long-acting injectable ART for individuals who are already virally suppressed, there are calls to expand its use to disenfranchised populations. Dr. Monica Gandhi of the University of California San Francisco highlights the barriers these populations face in adhering to daily oral ART. Factors such as subsistence needs, housing and food insecurity, transportation limitations, and mental health concerns can impede the efficacy of oral medications. Long-acting injectable therapy may hold promise in overcoming these challenges, offering a viable solution for patients with multiple competing priorities.
Addressing Concerns and Showcasing Promise
Despite the potential benefits, it is essential to address concerns and reservations regarding long-acting injectable ART. A study conducted in France found that 74% of patients were interested in an every-other-month injectable regimen. However, 29% expressed concerns about potential side effects, and 21% cited a fear of too much constraint associated with injectable therapy. These concerns must be acknowledged and actively addressed by healthcare providers.
Research conducted in San Francisco examined the use of long-acting ART in a safety-net population with complex needs. The study demonstrated that a significant proportion of patients achieved virological suppression, even in the presence of active viremia and various comorbidities. Another study involving patients with active viremia showcased the effectiveness of long-acting injectable therapy in achieving virological suppression. These findings highlight the clinical implications of long-acting therapy and emphasize the potential it holds for patients with challenges in adhering to daily oral ART.
Looking Towards the Future
Currently, injectables are the only available form of long-acting ART. However, researchers are already exploring other drug delivery mechanisms and treatment intervals. Dr. Gupta draws attention to the oral long-acting therapies in development, which are being designed for once per week or at most once per month administration. These advancements aim to provide additional options for patients seeking long-acting alternatives to daily oral medication.
Lenacapavir, a recently approved drug, offers a promising avenue for long-acting treatment. Initially given orally and then administered subcutaneously every six months, lenacapavir has shown efficacy in heavily treatment-experienced patients with multidrug resistance. Further research is needed to determine the optimal combination of oral or injectable long-acting drugs with lenacapavir to ensure long-lasting efficacy without the development of virologic resistance.
The introduction of long-acting injectable ART marks a significant milestone in HIV treatment. It provides individuals with the power to choose a treatment option that aligns with their preferences and needs. Despite challenges and concerns surrounding its use, the potential benefits of long-acting therapy, particularly for vulnerable populations, cannot be understated. As researchers continue to explore new delivery mechanisms and treatment intervals, the future of HIV treatment looks promising, bringing hope for improved adherence and better overall outcomes for individuals living with HIV.