The United States and Indonesia are set to engage in discussions aimed at advancing a potential minerals partnership focused on stimulating the trade of nickel, a crucial metal used in electric vehicle (EV) batteries. These discussions will take place during Indonesian President Joko Widodo’s visit to the White House, where he will meet with U.S. President Joe Biden. While the Biden administration recognizes the importance of the partnership, concerns about environmental, social, and governance standards in Indonesia need to be addressed.
The Biden administration remains cautious about entering into a minerals partnership with Indonesia and is examining how such a deal would work. The administration is particularly concerned about ensuring that any nickel supply from Indonesia is produced with minimal environmental impact. This focus on sustainability aligns with the administration’s commitment to addressing climate change and promoting green initiatives.
Indonesia, with the largest nickel ore reserves globally, has faced criticism for the environmental consequences of nickel mining, including heavy deforestation and water pollution. The Biden administration aims to ensure that any potential partnership includes measures that minimize these environmental impacts. Discussions will encompass guidelines for producing nickel with as little environmental impact as possible.
While the overall momentum for the partnership is promising, both countries acknowledge the need for further work. There is a recognition that significant challenges lie ahead in establishing a critical minerals partnership that aligns with the objectives of both countries. It is essential to ensure that the interests of all stakeholders, including labor groups and lawmakers, are taken into account during this process.
Indonesia’s ambition is to develop an EV supply chain that utilizes its vast reserves of nickel. Currently, most of Indonesia’s nickel is processed into crude metal. However, the government sees the potential of utilizing nickel as a battery material, furthering its goal of becoming a key player in the EV market.
The United States has specific requirements for critical minerals used in EV batteries. To be eligible for tax credits, a certain amount of these minerals must be produced or assembled in North America or a free trade partner. Indonesia does not have a free trade agreement with the US, which presents a challenge in ensuring that exports from Indonesia meet the necessary criteria.
Some voices within the mining industry argue that the Biden administration should prioritize approving domestic mining projects rather than seeking international supply. Currently, the US has only one operating nickel mine, which is set to close in the next few years. Without a nickel smelter, the US risks falling short of Biden’s goal to lead in EV manufacturing. The administration’s support for domestic projects, such as the funding of a nickel processing plant in North Dakota, reflects its commitment to addressing this challenge.
The global market for nickel is currently oversupplied, with a projected market value of $33.5 billion in 2022. However, despite the market’s saturation, the significance of nickel in EV production cannot be overstated. As the EV market continues to grow, securing a stable nickel supply becomes paramount for economic growth and sustainability.
The potential minerals partnership between the United States and Indonesia holds great promise for the future of the EV industry. As discussions progress, both countries must navigate the challenges surrounding environmental impact, trade requirements, and domestic priorities. By addressing these issues, the partnership can forge a path towards sustainable and mutually beneficial trade in the critical mineral of nickel.