The Hidden Nanocrystals Inside Earth’s Oldest Rocks: Insights into the Origins of Life

Encased within the ancient rocks of the Pilbara region in Western Australia lie nanocrystals that hold significant clues about the origins of life on Earth. Scientists from the University of Western Australia and the University of Cambridge have made a groundbreaking discovery that sheds light on the role of phosphorus as a building block of life and the formation of primitive RNA. By studying 3.5-billion-year-old rocks under a transmission electron microscope, they have found unexpected minerals that could potentially rewrite our understanding of prebiotic chemistry.

The Pilbara region is renowned for its remarkable preservation of Earth’s crust during the Archean era when life was just beginning to emerge. Within these rocks lies a treasure trove of insights into the chemistry that paved the way for life as we know it. At first glance, the red stripy rock appears to be a mixture of fine quartz and hematite. However, upon closer inspection, hidden nanocrystals with intriguing properties reveal themselves. Dispersed throughout the jasper beds are fine particles of greenalite, a mineral composed of iron, silicon, and oxygen. These particles were likely expelled from hydrothermal vents and precipitated on the ancient seafloor billions of years ago.

The discovery of nanocrystals within the rocks offers fascinating insights into the extraordinary world at the nanoscale. The structure of greenalite is particularly unusual, with corrugated particle edges resulting from a misalignment in its crystal structure. These grooves in the clay nanoparticles are of the perfect size to facilitate the alignment and assembly of biomolecular components such as RNA and DNA. This suggests that the clay particles acted as catalytic tools, concentrating RNA or pre-RNA molecules, and enabling them to easily click together. This finding supports the hypothesis that hydrothermal vents, with their constant churning of seawater and nutrient-rich plumes, were ideal environments for the emergence and assembly of life’s building blocks.

Phosphorus is a vital element found in biological structures, including DNA, membranes, and lipids. However, its low concentration in the ocean has puzzled scientists for years. The presence of fluorapatite nanoparticles in the 3.5-billion-year-old rocks of the Pilbara region offers a potential explanation. Fluorapatite is a mineral composed of oxygen, calcium, fluorine, and phosphorus – the very element that is scarce in today’s oceans. The researchers’ models suggest that the concentration of phosphorus in deep seawater billions of years ago was significantly higher than it is today. This discovery implies that hydrothermal vents could have been early sources of accessible phosphorus, providing the necessary conditions for the emergence and evolution of life.

The hidden nanocrystals nestled within Earth’s oldest rocks have offered us a glimpse into the profound events that shaped the emergence of life on our planet. Through their unique structures and properties, these nanoparticles provide clues about how molecules came together to form the fundamental components of life. The discovery of greenalite and its corrugated edges suggests that hydrothermal vents served as catalysts for biomolecular assembly, while the presence of fluorapatite hints at the abundant availability of phosphorus in the ancient oceans. As we continue to unlock the secrets of our planet’s history, these nanocrystals pave the way for a deeper understanding of life’s origins and the potential for similar processes on other worlds in the universe.

Science

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