Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 10% of women. It is characterized by hormonal imbalances and reproductive issues. While PCOS is known to have physical health implications, a recent cohort study published in Neurology suggests that it may also have an impact on cognitive function, particularly in middle age. The study, conducted by Heather Huddleston, MD, and colleagues from the University of California San Francisco, followed women with PCOS for 30 years to assess their cognitive performance. The results revealed lower cognitive test scores among women with PCOS compared to those without the condition.
The study found that women diagnosed with PCOS in young adulthood performed lower on a composite of five cognitive function tests. The mean z scores difference for cognitive performance was -0.190, indicating a significant decline in cognitive abilities among women with PCOS. This difference was primarily driven by lower scores in three specific cognitive tests: the Stroop test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and the Category fluency test. These tests evaluate executive functioning, memory, and verbal fluency, which are crucial cognitive skills for daily life.
The study also revealed that women with PCOS had higher rates of depressive symptoms, diabetes, and higher glucose levels compared to those without the condition. Moreover, they had elevated levels of free testosterone and total testosterone, indicating hormonal imbalances. These findings suggest a potential link between PCOS, mental health issues, and metabolic factors. The researchers highlighted the importance of addressing the mental health needs of individuals with PCOS to improve cognitive health.
Another significant finding of the study was the lower white matter fractional anisotropy among women with PCOS. White matter integrity is a measure of brain health, and its decline has been associated with age-related cognitive decline. The study observed lower fractional anisotropy in multiple regions of the brain, including the frontal, parietal, temporary, occipital, limbic, and corpus callosum white matter. These findings suggest that PCOS may contribute to early brain aging and compromised white matter integrity.
The study highlights the interconnectedness of reproductive and metabolic factors with cognitive function. While these factors are often considered separate entities, they have profound implications for brain health. PCOS, with its hormonal imbalances, may disrupt the delicate balance of the brain, leading to cognitive deficits. Understanding and addressing these factors can potentially improve cognitive outcomes for individuals with PCOS.
The findings of this study have significant implications for public health, considering the prevalence of PCOS among women. It emphasizes the need for comprehensive care that encompasses mental health, metabolic control, and cognitive interventions for individuals with PCOS. The study also acknowledges its limitations, including a small sample size for the imaging component and potential unmeasured confounders. Further research with larger cohorts is necessary to validate these findings and explore the extent of the cognitive deficits associated with PCOS.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is not only a reproductive and metabolic disorder but may also have implications for cognitive health. Lower cognitive test scores, elevated rates of depressive symptoms, and compromised white matter integrity suggest a link between PCOS and cognitive deficits in middle age. This study highlights the importance of addressing the mental health and metabolic needs of individuals with PCOS to improve their cognitive outcomes. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and develop targeted interventions to mitigate the cognitive impact of PCOS.